NYC Debt Defense & fALSE ADVERTISING Attorney

Motion for Summary Judgment: A Guide for New Yorkers

What is a Motion for Summary Judgment in New York

What is a Motion for Summary Judgment?

A motion for summary judgment is a legal procedure that allows a party to a lawsuit to ask the court to decide the case in their favor without a trial. The “moving party” claims that there are no genuine issues of material fact and that they are entitled to judgment as a matter of law.

In essence, a motion for summary judgment is a tool to resolve clear-cut cases without the complexities and duration of a traditional trial.

New York CPLR 3212 governs motions for summary judgment in New York state courts. Under CPLR 3212, a party may move for summary judgment in any action after "issue has been joined," which means after an answer has been filed.

The bottom of this blog contains a list of key holdings about the admissibility of evidence to support a motion for summary judgment.

How Does a Motion for Summary Judgment Work?

The moving party must file a motion with the court, along with supporting affidavits and exhibits. The motion must show that there are no genuine issues of material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law.

The non-moving party can respond to the motion and submit their own affidavits and exhibits. The non-moving party must show that there are genuine issues of material fact that need to be decided at trial.

If the court grants the motion for summary judgment, the case will be decided in favor of the moving party without a trial.

The Legal Framework for Summary Judgment: New York CPLR 3212

The New York Civil Practice Law and Rules (CPLR) is a comprehensive set of rules that governs civil litigation in New York State. Within this vast framework, CPLR 3212 specifically addresses the motion for summary judgment.

  1. Timing: Under CPLR 3212, a party can't file a motion for summary judgment until after 40 days from the commencement of the action. Additionally, unless the court sets a different date, such a motion should be made no later than 120 days after filing the note of issue.
  2. Basis for the Motion: The party making the motion must show that there are no genuine disputes over material facts and that they are entitled to judgment as a matter of law. This is typically done by presenting evidence like affidavits, depositions, and documents.
  3. Opposing the Motion: The party opposing the motion must present evidentiary facts demonstrating a genuine dispute. Merely denying the claims isn't sufficient; concrete evidence is required.
  4. Court's Role: The court's duty is to examine the evidence presented by both sides. The court will grant the motion if there's no genuine issue regarding any material fact. However, the motion will be denied if any doubt or conflicting evidence leads the case towards trial.
  5. Relevance to Summary Judgment: CPLR 3212 is the backbone of the summary judgment process in New York. It outlines the procedure, timing, and standards by which these motions are judged. For consumers and attorneys alike, understanding CPLR 3212 is crucial. It dictates how and when to file, what evidence is pertinent, and how the court will evaluate the motion. It's the rulebook for navigating the summary judgment terrain in New York's legal landscape.

When is a Motion for Summary Judgment Filed?

The timing of filing a motion for summary judgment is both strategic and procedural. It's essential to understand when such a motion is typically filed within the context of a lawsuit to anticipate its potential impact and prepare accordingly.

  1. Procedural Timing: As per New York's CPLR 3212:
    • After Issue Has Been Joined: Any party can move for summary judgment once the issue has been joined in the action.
    • Court-Set Date: The court may set a specific date after which no motion for summary judgment can be made. This date cannot be earlier than thirty days after filing the note of issue.
  2. Strategic Considerations: While the CPLR provides a framework, the actual decision to file a motion for summary judgment often hinges on strategy. Parties might choose to file:
    • After Discovery: Once the discovery phase (where both sides exchange information and evidence) is complete, a party might feel they have enough evidence to show there's no genuine dispute of material fact.
    • Before Trial: If a party believes that the law is clearly on their side and there are no factual disputes, they might file a motion for summary judgment to avoid the uncertainties and expenses of a trial.
  3. Case Developments: Sometimes, developments within a case can prompt a motion for summary judgment. For instance, if a key witness for one side becomes unavailable or if new evidence emerges that significantly strengthens one party's position, it might be deemed the right time to file the motion.

Check out Lexis for a granular look at filings in various counties across New York.

In summary, while there are procedural guidelines for when a motion for summary judgment can be filed, the actual decision often intertwines with the strategic considerations of the parties involved. Being aware of these timings and strategies can help in anticipating and responding to such motions effectively.

Typical Timeline in a Lawsuit

Navigating the legal landscape can be daunting, especially when faced with a lawsuit's intricate steps and stages. Understanding the typical timeline can provide clarity and help parties anticipate what's next. Here's a general overview of the stages of a lawsuit:

  1. Complaint/Petition: The lawsuit begins when the plaintiff (the party initiating the lawsuit) files a complaint or petition against the defendant (the party being sued), outlining the grievances and the relief sought.
  2. Service of Process: Once the complaint is filed, the defendant is formally notified through a process known as service of process. This ensures the defendant is aware of the lawsuit and has an opportunity to respond.
  3. Answer: The defendant has a specific period (often 20-30 days, depending on jurisdiction) to file an answer, addressing each allegation in the complaint and presenting any defenses.
  4. Discovery: This is an extended phase where both parties exchange information relevant to the lawsuit. It can involve interrogatories (written questions), depositions (oral testimonies under oath), and requests for documents.
  5. Motions: During or after discovery, parties may file various motions. One common motion is the motion for summary judgment, where a party argues that there's no genuine dispute of material fact and the case should be decided without a full trial.
  6. Pre-Trial Proceedings: Before the trial, there might be pre-trial hearings to resolve final issues, discuss evidence, or even attempt settlement.
  7. Trial: If no settlement is reached and motions don't resolve the case, it proceeds to trial. Both parties present their evidence, and either a judge or jury makes a decision.
  8. Judgment: After the trial, the court issues a judgment, which is the final decision in the case. It outlines any relief granted, such as monetary damages or specific actions the defendant must take.
  9. Appeal: If either party believes there was a legal error in the trial, they can appeal to a higher court. This isn't a re-trial but a review of the legal aspects of the original trial.
  10. Enforcement: If the judgment involves a monetary award and the losing party doesn't pay, the winning party might take steps to enforce the judgment, such as garnishing wages or seizing assets.

Where is the Motion for Summary Judgment Filed In New York?

A motion for summary judgment can be filed in any New York state court, including the Supreme Court, County Court, and Civil Court. The motion must be filed after issue has been joined but before the case is scheduled for trial.

Importance of Jurisdiction and Venue

In the legal world, the terms "jurisdiction" and "venue" are often used interchangeably by those unfamiliar with their nuances. However, they serve distinct and crucial roles in the litigation process. Understanding their importance can be pivotal to the outcome of a case.

  1. Jurisdiction - The Court's Authority:
    • Definition: Jurisdiction refers to a court's authority to hear and decide a particular case. It ensures that a court has both legal and geographical authority over the subject matter and the parties involved.
    • Types of Jurisdiction:
      • Personal Jurisdiction: The court's power over the parties in the lawsuit.
      • Subject Matter Jurisdiction: The court's authority to decide a particular type of case (e.g., a federal court handling federal issues or a family court overseeing divorce proceedings).
    • Significance: Without proper jurisdiction, any decision made by a court can be deemed invalid. It's a foundational element that ensures fairness and legitimacy in the legal process.
  2. Venue - The Right Location:
    • Definition: Venue pertains to the most appropriate or convenient location for a trial. It's about ensuring the trial occurs in a place connected to the events or parties of the lawsuit.
    • Determining Factors: Venue is typically determined by where the parties reside, where the events leading to the lawsuit took place, or where the property involved in the lawsuit is located.
    • Significance: The venue can influence various aspects of a trial, from the pool of potential jurors to the application of local court rules. An improper venue can be burdensome for parties and witnesses, leading to requests for a change of venue.

Interplay and Implications: While both jurisdiction and venue are separate concepts, they often intertwine. For instance, a court might have jurisdiction over a case but might not be the proper venue. Understanding and strategically considering these aspects can impact a trial's convenience, costs, and even the outcome. Ensuring the case is in the right court, and location for parties involved in litigation is not just a procedural formality but a strategic imperative.

Legal Intake Form-The Langel Firm

What is Contained in a Motion for Summary Judgment?

A motion for summary judgment is a pivotal moment in the litigation process. It's an assertion that the case, or parts of it, can be decided without a full trial based on the evidence at hand. But how is such a motion presented to the court? Let's delve into the process.

  1. Drafting the Motion:
    • Contents: The motion typically includes a statement of the undisputed facts supported by evidence such as affidavits, depositions, and documents. It argues that given these facts, the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law.
    • Legal Basis: The motion should cite relevant statutes, case law, or other legal authorities that support the request for summary judgment.
  2. Supporting Documents:
    • Affidavits: Sworn statements by witnesses or parties that provide factual support for the motion.
    • Exhibits: Relevant documents, photographs, or other evidence that bolster the moving party's claims.
    • Memorandum of Law: A detailed legal argument explaining why summary judgment should be granted based on the presented facts and applicable law.
  3. Service to the Opposing Party:
    • Once the motion is prepared, it must be served to the opposing party, giving them an opportunity to respond. This ensures fairness and due process.
    • The opposing party can then file opposing affidavits and legal arguments to contest the motion.
  4. Oral Argument:
    • Depending on the court's practices and the complexity of the motion, the judge might schedule an oral argument. This allows both parties to present their positions in person and answer any questions the judge might have.
    • Not all motions for summary judgment will have oral arguments; some might be decided based solely on the written submissions.
  5. Court's Decision:
    • After reviewing the motion, supporting documents, and any opposition, the court will issue a decision. The motion can be granted (in whole or in part) or denied, or the court might request additional information.
    • If granted, the case or the relevant issues are resolved without a trial. If denied, the case continues to trial.

In essence, presenting a motion for summary judgment is a meticulous process that combines factual evidence with legal arguments. It's a tool that, when used effectively, can streamline the litigation process, saving time and resources, and providing clarity on key issues.

The Process of Filing the Motion for Summary Judgment

Filing a motion for summary judgment is a structured process governed by specific rules. Rule 3212 of the New York Civil Practice Law and Rules (CPLR) provides a detailed framework for this process. Here's a step-by-step breakdown based on the statute:

  1. Timing of the Motion (CPLR 3212(a)):
    • Any party can move for summary judgment after the issue has been joined in the action.
    • The court may set a specific date after which no such motion can be made, ensuring it's no earlier than thirty days after filing the note of issue.
    • If the court doesn't set a specific date, the motion must be made no later than one hundred twenty days after filing the note of issue, unless there's good cause shown and the court grants leave.
  2. Supporting Proof and Grounds (CPLR 3212(b)):
    • The motion must be supported by an affidavit, a copy of the pleadings, and other available proof like depositions and written admissions.
    • The affidavit should be by someone with knowledge of the facts, recite all material facts, and show there's no defense or that the defense or cause of action has no merit.
    • The motion will be granted if, upon reviewing all submitted materials, the court determines that the cause of action or defense is established sufficiently to warrant judgment in favor of any party.
  3. Immediate Trial (CPLR 3212(c)):
    • If the only triable issues relate to the amount or extent of damages, or if the motion is based on specific grounds, the court may order an immediate trial of such issues.
  4. Partial Summary Judgment (CPLR 3212(e)):
    • In non-matrimonial actions, summary judgment can be granted for one or more causes of action or part thereof in favor of any party, as warranted.
    • The court can direct that the cause of action for which summary judgment is granted be severed from any remaining cause of action or hold the entry of the summary judgment in abeyance pending the determination of any remaining cause of action.
  5. Facts Unavailable to Opposing Party (CPLR 3212(f)):
    • If the opposing party indicates that essential facts to justify opposition may exist but cannot currently be stated, the court may deny the motion, order a continuance, or make any other just order.
  6. Limitation of Issues for Trial (CPLR 3212(g)):
    • If the motion is denied or granted in part, the court will specify the facts that are not in dispute or are incontrovertible, which will be deemed established for all purposes in the action.
  7. Additional Notice for Consumer Credit Actions (CPLR 3212(j)):
    • When the moving party is a plaintiff and the respondent is a consumer defendant in an action to collect a debt arising from a consumer credit transaction, and the consumer defendant is not represented by an attorney, the plaintiff must provide an additional notice in both English and Spanish. This notice informs the defendant about the motion for summary judgment, how to oppose it, and where to seek legal help.

Understanding and meticulously following the process outlined in CPLR 3212 is crucial. Any missteps can jeopardize the motion's success or even lead to its dismissal.

Which Documents Should Support a Motion for Summary Judgment?

When moving for summary judgment, it's not just about stating a claim or defense; it's about substantiating it with concrete evidence and adhering to the procedural requirements. Based on our discussions and the provisions of CPLR 3212, here are the key elements and evidence that must be presented:

  1. Affidavit with Knowledge of Facts (CPLR 3212(b)):
    • A crucial component of the motion is an affidavit by someone with knowledge of the facts.
    • This affidavit should recite all material facts and demonstrate that there's no valid defense or that the cause of action or defense lacks merit.
  2. Supporting Proof (CPLR 3212(b)):
    • A copy of the pleadings in the case.
    • Other available proof can include depositions, written admissions, and any other relevant evidence.
    • Exhibits, such as documents, photographs, or other tangible evidence that supports the motion.
  3. Memorandum of Law:
    • A detailed legal argument that outlines why the motion should be granted based on the undisputed facts and the applicable law.
    • This should cite relevant statutes, case law, or other legal authorities that bolster the motion's claims.
  4. Expert Affidavits (if applicable):
    • Expert affidavits can be submitted if expert testimony is crucial to the motion.
    • The court will consider these affidavits even if an expert exchange wasn't furnished prior to the affidavit's submission.
  5. Additional Notice for Consumer Credit Actions (CPLR 3212(j)):
    • If the motion involves a consumer defendant in a debt collection action arising from a consumer credit transaction, and the defendant isn't represented by an attorney, an additional notice in both English and Spanish must be provided. This notice informs the defendant about the motion, how to oppose it, and where to seek legal help.

Presenting a motion for summary judgment isn't merely a procedural step. It's a comprehensive presentation of facts and legal arguments, supported by concrete evidence, to convince the court that a full trial is unnecessary. Ensuring that all these key elements and evidence are meticulously presented is pivotal to the motion's success.

The Role of Affidavits and Sworn Statements

In the legal landscape, affidavits and sworn statements play a pivotal role, especially in motions and other pre-trial proceedings. These documents provide a foundation of facts upon which legal arguments are built. Let's delve into their significance and how they function within the context of a motion for summary judgment and beyond.

  1. Definition:
    • Affidavit: A written statement confirmed by oath or affirmation, typically used as evidence in court.
    • Sworn Statement: A broader term that encompasses any statement made under oath, including affidavits.
  2. Purpose and Importance:
    • Evidentiary Value: Affidavits and sworn statements provide a factual basis for claims or defenses. They serve as evidence, presenting the court with a version of events or facts from a firsthand perspective.
    • Credibility: Since they are made under oath, these statements carry a presumption of truthfulness. False statements can lead to perjury charges, ensuring that individuals provide accurate and honest information.
    • Efficiency: They allow parties to present facts without calling a witness to testify in person, streamlining the pre-trial process.
  3. Role in Motions for Summary Judgment:
    • As per CPLR 3212(b), a motion for summary judgment must be supported by an affidavit. This affidavit should be from someone with knowledge of the facts, recite all material facts, and demonstrate the absence of a defense or the lack of merit in a cause of action or defense.
    • The affidavit serves as a foundational document, helping the court determine whether there are genuine disputes of material fact that necessitate a trial.
  4. Content and Structure:
    • Firsthand Knowledge: The individual providing the affidavit or sworn statement should only include information they have direct knowledge of.
    • Detailed and Specific: General or vague statements are less persuasive. It's essential to provide specific details and dates when possible.
    • Attachments: Relevant documents or other evidence can be attached as exhibits to the affidavit, with explanations provided within the statement.
  5. Challenges and Scrutiny:
    • Opposing parties can challenge the content of an affidavit or sworn statement, questioning its accuracy or the credibility of the individual providing it.
    • Courts will scrutinize these documents, especially when determining whether to grant a motion for summary judgment. Inconsistencies, lack of detail, or statements that contradict other evidence can weaken the impact of an affidavit.

In conclusion, affidavits and sworn statements are more than just paperwork; they are foundational tools in the litigation process. They provide courts with a clear picture of the facts, influence legal strategies, and can significantly impact the outcome of motions and trials.

Sample Affidavit of Facts in Support of Bank's Motion for Summary Judgment


ABC Bank,                              INDEX NO. 123456/23





State of NEW YORK)
                                       ) SS:
County of NEW YORK )

The undersigned, being duly sworn, deposes and says:

  1. I am a representative of JOHN DOE ("Plaintiff") and have access to Plaintiff's records related to the account ("Account") of JANE SMITH. The last four digits of the Account number are 4321.

  2. The plaintiff's records were created and maintained in the regular course of business. These records were made at or near the time of the events they describe.

  3. The records are kept in the systematic conduct of the business activity and are regularly conducted by the Plaintiff.

  4. The sources of information and the method and circumstances of the preparation of these records are such as to indicate their trustworthiness.

  5. It is a regular practice of the Plaintiff's business to make such records.

  6. The business records are not created in anticipation of litigation.

  7. These records have been maintained in a secure environment with restricted access to ensure their integrity.

  8. The record was kept in the course of a regularly conducted business activity, and making the record was a regular practice of that activity.

  9. As of the date of this affidavit, Defendant owes $5,000 to the Account. No additional fees or charges have been added.

  10. There is a chain of custody for the records, which ensures that they have not been altered or tampered with since their creation.

  11. I have been trained and am competent to manage and maintain these business records, ensuring their accuracy and reliability.

WHEREFORE, Plaintiff demands a judgment against Defendant for $5,000 plus any associated court costs.

This statement is accurate to the best of my knowledge.

Signature of Affiant


Notary Public, State of New York
My Commission Expires: Dec. 31, 2025


I, JOHN LAWYER, an attorney in the State of New York, confirm that the above acknowledgment was taken in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Defenses for Consumers

When faced with a motion for summary judgment, especially in cases involving consumer rights, it's crucial for defendants to understand the array of defenses available to them. These defenses can halt the motion in its tracks, ensuring that the consumer's rights are protected and that they get their day in court. Here's a breakdown of some key defenses:

a. Genuine Dispute of Material Fact:

    • Importance of Material Facts: In the context of a motion for summary judgment, material facts are those that can influence the outcome of the case. They are central to the claims or defenses presented.
    • Defense Mechanism: If there's a genuine dispute over any material fact, summary judgment is typically inappropriate. The court recognizes that such disputes should be resolved through a full trial, where evidence can be presented and witnesses cross-examined.

b. Inadequate Documentation:

  • For a plaintiff to succeed in a motion for summary judgment, they must provide clear and convincing evidence supporting their claims.
  • If the plaintiff fails to produce adequate documentation or evidence, the defendant can argue against the motion on these grounds. This is especially relevant in debt collection cases, where the plaintiff must prove the existence and amount of the debt.

c. Statute of Limitations:

  • Legal claims aren't timeless. They must be brought within a specific period, as defined by the statute of limitations.
  • If the plaintiff files a claim after this period has expired, the defendant can use the statute of limitations as a defense, potentially leading to the dismissal of the claim.

d. Contractual Defenses:

  • Unconscionability: A contract or a specific term might be deemed unconscionable if it's excessively one-sided or oppressive.
  • Misrepresentation: If a party was induced into a contract based on false statements or promises, they might have a defense based on misrepresentation.
  • Breach of Contract: If the plaintiff breached the contract first, it could serve as a defense against their claims.

e. Procedural Defenses:

  • Legal proceedings are governed by specific rules and procedures. If the plaintiff fails to adhere to these, such as errors in the filing process or improper service of process, the defendant can raise these procedural issues as a defense.

In essence, consumers have a robust set of defenses at their disposal when faced with legal actions. By understanding and effectively leveraging these defenses, they can ensure their rights are upheld and that they are treated fairly within the legal system.

The Outcome of a Motion for Summary Judgment

A motion for summary judgment is a critical juncture in the litigation process. It seeks a resolution of the case (or specific issues within it) without needing a full trial. But what are the potential outcomes of such a motion, and what do they mean for the parties involved? Let's explore:

  1. Granted in Full:
    • If the court finds that there are no genuine disputes of material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law, the motion can be granted in its entirety.
    • This means that the case (or the specific issues addressed by the motion) is resolved in favor of the moving party without proceeding to trial.
  2. Denied:
    • If the court determines that there are genuine disputes of material fact or that the moving party is not entitled to judgment as a matter of law, the motion will be denied.
    • This outcome means that the case will continue towards trial or other stages of litigation.
  3. Granted in Part:
    • Sometimes, a motion for summary judgment addresses multiple issues or claims. The court might find some of these suitable for summary judgment while others are not.
    • In such cases, the motion can be granted in part, resolving some issues while leaving others for trial.
  4. Immediate Trial on Specific Issues (CPLR 3212(c)):
    • If the court identifies that the only triable issues relate to the amount or extent of damages or if the motion is based on specific grounds, the court might order an immediate trial on those issues.
    • This can expedite the resolution of the case by focusing on the core disputed matters.
  5. Establishment of Undisputed Facts (CPLR 3212(g)):
    • If the motion is denied or granted in part, the court may specify which facts are not in dispute or are incontrovertible.
    • These facts are then deemed established for the remainder of the litigation, streamlining the issues to be addressed in any subsequent trial.
  6. Potential for Cross-Motion:
    • In some instances, the non-moving party might believe they are entitled to summary judgment. Even if they didn't initially file a motion, the court can grant such judgment in their favor without the need for a cross-motion, provided the grounds are clear from the materials presented.
  7. Implications for the Parties:
    • The outcome of a motion for summary judgment can significantly impact the trajectory of a case. A granted motion can bring swift resolution, while a denied motion can set the stage for a more prolonged legal battle.
    • Regardless of the outcome, parties should be prepared to adjust their strategies and consider potential next steps, whether that's gearing up for trial, considering settlement, or exploring other legal avenues.

How Consumers Are Empowered by Knowledge of Legal Procedure

Understanding legal procedures is not just a matter of academic interest; it's a practical necessity for anyone who wishes to navigate the legal system effectively.

  1. Empowerment: Knowledge is power. When consumers understand the legal procedures, they are better equipped to assert their rights and make informed decisions. This empowerment can be the difference between feeling overwhelmed by a legal situation and confidently addressing it.
  2. Protection: Legal procedures, like the motion for summary judgment, can significantly impact the outcome of a case. By understanding these procedures, consumers can better protect their interests and ensure that parties with more legal expertise do not take advantage of them.
  3. Cost Savings: Legal disputes can be expensive. However, being informed about the processes can help consumers make cost-effective decisions, whether it's deciding to settle a case, challenge a motion, or seek specific legal remedies.
  4. Peace of Mind: The legal system can be intimidating. But with a clear understanding of what to expect, consumers can reduce anxiety and uncertainty. Knowing the steps and potential outcomes can provide a sense of control in what often feels like a chaotic environment.

In essence, the legal world can seem like a maze, but with a map in hand – in this case, knowledge of legal procedures – consumers can navigate it more easily and confidently.

Admissibility of Evidence: Summary of Key Holdings from New York Case Law on Summary Judgment

  1. Evidence about a dentist's routine procedure for administering anesthesia was admissible in a dental malpractice action due to the frequency and consistency of its use. Rivera v. Anilesh, 8 N.Y.3d 627 (2007).

  2. The mortgagee's assignee failed to provide evidence of the mortgagor's default in an admissible form in a mortgage foreclosure action. Fulton Holding Group, LLC v. Lindoff, 165 A.D.3d 1045 (2018).

  3. Genuine issues existed about whether a father's actions caused his child's distress, preventing summary judgment in a child custody case. Kenneth J. v. Lesley B., 165 A.D.3d 439 (2018).

  4. An affirmation from attorneys' counsel was valid for submitting evidentiary proof in a legal malpractice case. Aur v. Manhattan Greenpoint Ltd., 132 A.D.3d 595 (2015).

  5. In a scaffold law claim, an unsigned but certified deposition transcript was admissible for summary judgment. Vetrano v. J. Kokolakis Contracting, Inc., 100 A.D.3d 984 (2012).

  6. An uncertified autopsy report was inadmissible for summary judgment in a wrongful death case. Eberts v. Makarczuk, 52 A.D.3d 772 (2008).

  7. A letter about lift rods was admissible as a business record in a products liability action. Reyes v. Harding Steel, Inc., 50 A.D.3d 427 (2008).

  8. A transcript was admissible for summary judgment, even if the certification page was initially omitted. Felberbaum v. Weinberger, 40 A.D.3d 808 (2007).

  9. Courts should not rely on judicial findings as evidence for summary judgment. Veloz v. Refika Realty Co., 38 A.D.3d 299 (2007).

  10. For summary judgment, materiality is typically a jury question, and insurance company employees' statements alone can't establish materiality. Christophersen v. Allstate Ins. Co., 34 A.D.3d 515 (2006).

  11. Verified bill of particulars can be considered in opposition to a motion for summary judgment. Johnson v. Peconic Diner, 31 A.D.3d 387 (2006).

  12. Terms of a prior contract were inadmissible to establish indemnity in a breach of contract action due to a merger clause in the current contract. McNamee Const. Corp. v. City of New Rochelle, 29 A.D.3d 544 (2006).

  13. For summary judgment, evidentiary facts must be presented, but they don't necessarily need to be in trial form. State v. Metz, 241 A.D.2d 192 (1998).

  14. A party seeking summary judgment must provide evidentiary proof in admissible form. LaGrega v. Farrell Lines, Inc., 156 A.D.2d 205 (1989).

  15. Rules of evidence should be applied cautiously in summary judgment applications. Todd Equipment Leasing Co., Inc. v. Pierce Trading Corp., 63 A.D.2d 1018 (1978).

  16. Prior summary judgment orders aren't adjudications on merits and don't establish particular facts. Progressive Orthopedics, PLLC v. Hertz Corp., 56 Misc.3d 70 (2017).

  17. For summary judgment, the movant must provide evidentiary proof in admissible form. Lewis Family Farm, Inc. v. Adirondack Park Agency, 22 Misc.3d 568 (2008).

  18. Courts can consider evidence attached to reply affirmations for summary judgment. Rivera v. Rite Lite Ltd., 13 Misc.3d 1142 (2006).

  19. For summary judgment, full and clear material information on disputed points should be presented in the moving papers, not in the reply. Christian v. Al's Auto Exp. Corp., 34 Misc.2d 756 (1962).

  20. The same quality of evidence is needed for summary judgment as would be required at trial. Bern Contracting Corp. v. Shelton 525 Lexington Corp., 199 N.Y.S.2d 863 (1960).


The motion for summary judgment, as outlined in CPLR 3212, is a pivotal juncture in the litigation process. Three key sections of this rule stand out: the timing of the motion, the necessity for supporting proof through affidavits and other evidence, and the establishment of undisputed facts. These provisions underscore the motion's rigorous evidentiary demands and its potential to expedite or reshape a case's trajectory. For all parties involved, understanding and meticulously adhering to CPLR 3212 is not just about procedure—it's about ensuring a fair and just resolution in the legal arena.

Intake Form to Fight a Motion for Summary Judgment in a Collection Case